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Auf diese Weise umgehen sie den Bonus und die Bedingungen. Analyzing the above mentioned example one should realize that flight technique varies with particular situations.
It depends among other things on weather conditions circuit to be made short circuit, low circuit etc. Returning to the subject of active speed control, on aircraft approaching to land will reduce speed according to the following sequence: From "normal operating speed" to, successively, "maximum flop extension speed", "circuit manoeuvring speed", flop up clean configuration , "circuit manoeuvring speed" flap portly down, "recommended approach speed", "threshold speed".
The following table is included to give an idea of these speeds for the following types of aircraft: Circuit manoeuvring speed in clean configuration flops up: Suppose a DC 8 is flying in a terminal control area 10 nautical miles behind a Viscount.
There is insufficient space to allow manoeuvring in a lateral way side by side on account of the existence of in- and outbound routings or mountains etc.
The DCB could be delayed by holding, but by applying speed control both aircraft con continue without excessive delay. From the table we see that the DC 8 con be delayed by reducing its airspeed to knots, which is the "flap up manoeuvring speed" at maximum landingweight.
If this is still too high we ask the Indicated Airspeed of the Viscount and it appears to be knots. It is obvious now that the Viscount is also flying at "flap up manoeuvring speed".
To keep sufficient spacing, the DC 8 should be reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed" knots at maximum landing weight.
The DC 8 is now flying at a groundspeed which is approximately 10 knots in excess of that of the Viscount, which results in a loss of only about 1 nautical mile in separation over a distance of 30 noutico I miles.
The only calculation we now have to make is whether the remaining separation of 9 nautical miles is enough to guarantee 3 nautical miles separation at touch down.
It is indeed sufficient and if you would like to check this, I kindly advise you to read again the article about "Radar spacing techniques for the final approach path" by Tirey K.
Vickers, published in The Controller of October For those who are not in possession of this volume, Fig. The approach speeds of the aircraft in the above mentioned example are knots for the Viscount and knots for the DC 8 at maximum landingwerght In this example we only cons;dered reducing the DC 8.
Another possibility would have been I. It is obvious that pilots are in favour of this positive speed control as long as it prevents them from being delayed over holding points.
Therefore this tool is not only useful for controllers but it will on the other hand save money on the part of airline operators. It prevents the pilot from "dead" flying at low altitudes and will thereby avoid excessive fuel consumption for jet aircraft.
It is not possible of course to give upper and lower limitations for non reducing respectively reducing as these limitations depend on local circumstances terrain etc.
The extent to which controllers can use this technique should be laid down in local instructions after thorough consult with airline operators.
Generally, pilots may be asked to fly at least at maximum flap extension speed until the aircraft is approximately 10 nautical miles from.
In view of the ground-equipment program and as acceptable results can only be obtained with SSR if the necessary airborne equipment is installed, the Netherlands CAD plans to implement the following program on the mandatory carriage of SSR-transponders on board of aircraft.
This problem is published below for the guidance and information of operators. Taking into account Ree. Reducing is possible to this "flap extension speed" and also further down to "flap up manoeuvring speed" at all distances.
As soon as the aircraft is about 15 nautical miles out, it may be further reduced to "circuit manoeuvring speed".
A request to reduce to "recommended approach speed" is only acceptable, if the aircraft is well established on the. Spacing Chart to obtain 3 min.
Numbers show separation required in nautical miles when No. If ground and airborne equipment becomes available in the period up to which will make the use of 4 codes A, B, C and D pulses on modes A, B, C and D possible, a further policy announcement will be made.
It is anticipated that this type of equipment will become mandatory by Opeircitoon and Applications of the Hazeltine Alpha-Numeric Generator An new alpha-numeric generator ANG equipment recently developed by the Hazeltine Corporation provides a long-awaited improvement in air traffic control - the positive association of aircraft identity and altitude information with the aircraft targets shown on radar displays.
The number of channels refers to the number of independent radar displays which the ANG can feed simultaneously. This type of display is installed in many Federal Aviation Agency air traffic control facilities.
The heart of the ANG is the data converter, which converts digital data to television alpha-numeric video. The data converter is analogous to the scan converter which translates the radar picture into television raster form, for bright display.
Converting digital computer data into television raster form, the ANG operates in parallel with the scan converter, as shown in Figure 1.
The outputs of the scan converter and the data converter are combined in a video mixer, to provide a composite television display of radar and alphanumeric data.
The RBDE-5 system uses a lrne television raster which has active lines. Each of these lines is made up of separate picture elements.
Thus the useable raster contains X, or approximately OOO discrete picture elements. By activating appropriate combinations of the memory elements, any alpha-numeric character or other visual symbol may be generated.
This is the smallest matrix which will produce all numerals and all letters of the Roman alphabet, in easily-readible form. Larger matrices could be designed if necessary to accomodate larger or more complex symbology.
Figure 6 shows its main components. The operation of these components is described below. Controls Each display chan nel is equipped w ith o set of controls to enable the controller to se lect a nd position the data on his display, to enter new o r modified data into the computer, to coordinate target hondoff i nformation, and to transfer target juri sdiction to an o ther channel.
These contro l modules are shown in Figure 7 to l l. All modules ore mounted in conven ient location s in the display console.
Subsequently, th e activation o f on entry button transfers the data to the core memory, as a service command. An inherent characteristic of a ll picto rial ai r traffic co ntrol d isp la ys is that th e d isplay surface con prese nt on ly o two -di mensiona l picture of o situation w hich is taking place in thre e dimens ions.
Th is o fte n causes the fo rgets to overlap. In such co ses the re is a dec ided tendency for the a ssociated target la be ls to ove rlap too. This characte rist ic con be corrected, by providin g the contro ll er with the ab ility to shift any target la be l to on e o f eight d iffe re nt direc tio ns from its a ssoc iated ta rget.
In add ition, t he co ntrolle r con change the length of the leader lines, to change the d istance between the target labels a nd thei r a ssoc iated targets.
To ovo id the da nger of o verw he lming t he controlle r with too mu ch informat ion, con tro ls o re provided which enable h im to filte r th e a lp ha-nume ric d a ta p resente d o n his d isplay, to suppress t he informatio n w hich is not of immed iate inte rest, and thus increase the visibility of the stra teg ic informa tion w hich is pertine nt to th e si tua tion a t hand.
Th e suppressed informat ion co n b e called up instantly w he n need ed. Th ese bits ore transm itted in pa ra llel, one word a t a time.
The ANG con ha ndle inputs and outputs a t the rote of w ords p e r secon d. The co mputer-ge ne rated target da ta inc ludes a ircraft iden tifi cation, altitud e, b e a con code, and posi tion coo rdi na tes, for e a ch ta rg et.
From 5 to 15 digital wo rds ore necessary to defin e a ll the da ta for a singl e ta rget. Whe never a change in the display d a ta occu rs, th e compu ter furnishes the ANG w ith a co mpl e te new set of target d a ta.
The ta rge t data is rece ived by a buffe r re g is te r and is transferred im media te ly to the co re memo ry for storag e. Service co m ma nds g e ne ra ted by the ope rato r controls o re transmitted fr om the core memory through on output interface to the compute r.
Core Memory O ne portion of the core mem o ry sto res t he target data received fro m the computer, a nd a lso accumul ates the service comman ds receive d fro m th e var ious o p e ra to r controls.
This portion of the core me mo ry con sto re all th e target a nd co ntrol data for as many a s a ircraft ta rgets. Th e core storag e is shore d used sequ e ntia ll y by a l I display channe ls.
This design concept minimizes th e syste m cost per chan nel. The magnetic core memory hos the extreme ly high d a ta rote cap ability w h ich is necessary for this ty pe of o peration.
A ll target data in the core storage is sca nn ed se quen tia lly to select the data to be displayed by each cha nne l.
It receives the targe t do te bi ts fro m the core me mory. These bits defin e the channel a dd ress leade r, bar, a nd character codes.
After the required vectors ore p roce ssed, the leader line and any required bars o re gene rated in a sim ila r ma nner. Th e a lphanume ric characters a re t he n g enerated.
Each cha racter is tra nslated from a six-bit cha ra cte r code word rece ived fro m the core memory, into th e ind ividual seque nce of video-coded bits w hich d e fi ne t he character.
As each character is loade d, the me mory contro l adva nces to the sta rting address of the next cha racter. A space of two dots laterally or three te lev is ion li nes ve rtically, se para tes adjace nt characte rs in the targe t fo rm at.
This me mory un it p rovides 0 separate co re fo r e a ch o f the mo re than individua l dot positions of t he tele vision ras te r.
The core is the n ready to co ll ect th e in fo rmation for the next d is p la y channe l. The d rum rotates o t p recisely l rpm, w hich cor resp o nds to the 30 cycles-per-second fr a me ra te of the television sys te m.
The magnetic drum provides a very economical method of storing and reading out regeneratively the nearly 5 OOO OOO bits of information which are required to operate the SPAN system at full capacity.
The drum has not only inherent compatibility with the scan rates used in television systems, but its memory is indestructable except by deliberate erasure.
This provides a safety factor in that the last data will continue to be available on the display even though a failure occurs in the computer or its associated circuitry.
S Government provides 10 federal public holidays however private employers are not obligated to allow their employees to take these days off.
Latin America is home to the highest and lowest public holiday provision of any of the countries surveyed, although the continent also demonstrates the largest inequality Colombia vs Mexico.
Argentina and Chile have 15 public holidays with Brazil offering Within the Middle East and Africa MEA , Lebanon is the most generous country with 16 public holidays, while conversely United Arab Emirates is the least generous country with nine public holidays.
The researchers add that public holiday practices may be interpreted differently based on local practice. Consulting firm View news per consulting firm.
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