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In the United States , Spanish is the most commonly taught foreign language, though French is next. The future of the French language is often discussed in the news.

For example, in , The New York Times documented an increase in the teaching of French in New York, especially in dual-language programs where Spanish and Mandarin are offered rather than French as the second language.

It noted that French is spreading in areas where the population is rapidly increasing, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

Although there are many French regional accents, foreign learners normally use only one variety of the language.

French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology. The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:.

Yet, they cannot be changed to "oe" and "ae" in formal and literary texts. French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules.

This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling. Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography as with some English words such as "debt":.

French is a morphophonemic language. While it contains graphemes that denote only 36 phonemes , many of its spelling rules are likely due to a consistency in morphemic patterns such as adding suffixes and prefixes.

In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic generally leads to one phoneme. As a result, it can be difficult to predict the spelling of a word based on the sound.

Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel see Liaison French. For example, the following words end in a vowel sound: The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language.

In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. This change was then reflected in the orthography: The us ending, very common in Latin, was then abbreviated by copyists monks by the letter x , resulting in a written form animax.

The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. In addition, castel pl. Some proposals exist to simplify the existing writing system, but they still fail to gather interest.

In , a reform accepted some changes to French orthography. At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions. In , schoolbooks in France began to use the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct.

French is a moderately inflected language. Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently ; adjectives , for number and gender masculine or feminine of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person , number, gender, and case ; and verbs , for tense , aspect , mood , and the person and number of their subjects.

Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions , while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs. According to the French lexicogrammatical system, French has a rank-scale hierarchy with clause as the top rank, which is followed by group rank, word rank, and morpheme rank.

A French clause is made up of groups, groups are made up of words, and lastly, words are made up of morphemes. Every French noun is either masculine or feminine.

For nouns regarding the living, their grammatical genders often correspond to that which they refer to. For example, a male teacher is a "enseignant" while a female teacher is a "enseignante.

So a group of two male teachers would be "enseignants. The article used for singular nouns is different from that used for plural nouns and the article provides a distinguishing factor between the two in speech.

For example, the singular "le professeur" or "la professeur e " the male or female teacher, professor can be distinguished from the plural "les professeurs" because "le," "la," and "les" are all pronounced differently.

There are some situations where both the feminine and masculine form of a noun are the same and the article provides the only difference.

For example, "le dentiste" refers to a male dentist while "la dentiste" refers to a female dentist. The French language consists of both finite and non-finite moods.

The indicative mood makes use of eight different tense-aspect forms. Some forms are less commonly used today. The subjunctive mood only includes four of the tense-aspect forms found in the indicative: The imperative is used in the present tense with the exception of a few instances where it is used in the perfect tense.

French uses both the active voice and the passive voice. French declarative word order is subject—verb—object although a pronoun object precedes the verb.

Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French? In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin.

The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:. However, a historical tendency to gallicise Latin roots can be identified, whereas English conversely leans towards a more direct incorporation of the Latin:.

It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from Vulgar Latin , unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.

More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to mainly English imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules.

The result is often two or more co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon. Root languages of loanwords [93]. One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin estimated that among the languages analyzed French has the greatest distance from Latin.

The French counting system is partially vigesimal: The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts , literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze , literally "sixty-fifteen".

This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic via Breton and Viking influences.

This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score , as in "fourscore and seven" 87 , or "threescore and ten" In Old French during the Middle Ages , all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.

In the French spoken in these places, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic, [99] while in the Aosta Valley 80 is huitante.

French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Francophonie.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Old French Middle French. Regions where French is the main language. Regions where it is an official language but not a majority native language.

Regions where it is a second language. Regions where it is a minority language. Geographical distribution of French speakers.

Countries usually considered part of Francophone Africa. Their population was million in , [25] and it is forecast to reach between million [26] and million [25] in Countries sometimes considered as Francophone Africa.

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Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original on 24 December Archived from the original PDF on 2 June Archived from the original PDF on 4 July The Loire Valley, an intoxicating destination for visitors".

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Rock music has other, more Anglo-Saxon ingredients: Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 7 March Behind the robot masks".

Daft Punk were in many ways responsible for turning the spotlight on a new, cool underground of French music in the late s, including bestselling acts such as Air, and have been a huge influence on the current generation of international star DJs.

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Official Site of the Olympic Movement". Retrieved 8 July France beat Croatia in World Cup final". Sign in to remove this from recommended.

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In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Wozu möchten Sie uns Feedback geben? Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Franzosen plural Plural pl French French people. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen ein Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns einfach mal loben? Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch French.

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More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to mainly English imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules.

The result is often two or more co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon. Root languages of loanwords [93].

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin estimated that among the languages analyzed French has the greatest distance from Latin.

The French counting system is partially vigesimal: The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts , literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze , literally "sixty-fifteen".

This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic via Breton and Viking influences.

This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score , as in "fourscore and seven" 87 , or "threescore and ten" In Old French during the Middle Ages , all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.

In the French spoken in these places, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic, [99] while in the Aosta Valley 80 is huitante.

French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

It is not to be confused with Francophonie. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Old French Middle French. Regions where French is the main language. Regions where it is an official language but not a majority native language.

Regions where it is a second language. Regions where it is a minority language. Geographical distribution of French speakers.

Countries usually considered part of Francophone Africa. Their population was million in , [25] and it is forecast to reach between million [26] and million [25] in Countries sometimes considered as Francophone Africa.

French language in Lebanon. Dialects of the French language. French alphabet and French braille. French orthography and Reforms of French orthography.

Persian and Sanskrit 2. Native American languages 2. Various Asian languages 2. Slavic and Baltic languages 1. French language and French-speaking world portal.

Retrieved 23 September English, French and official language minorities in Canada". Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on Retrieved 21 November Nathan , Paris , Archived from the original on 27 September La francophonie de demain".

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Oxford Library of Psychology. It is important to note, however, that not all countries have an official language.

Until , France had discouraged the use of regional languages In , the government ratified Article from original source pdf 4.

Archived from the original pdf 0. Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original PDF on 17 June Retrieved 14 June Retrieved May 19, One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers.

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What is a foreign language worth? Retrieved 9 December Changes in French spelling cause uproar". John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Musumeci, Quart , See also the English Wikipedia article on Welsh language , especially the section "Counting system" and its note on the influence of Celtic in the French counting system.

Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 15 November For other unilingual dictionaries, see fr: Links to related articles.

Book Category Portal WikiProject. Language policy in France. Champenois Lorrain Picard Walloon. Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut Inupiaq Inuvialuktun.

French German Italian Romansh. Lombard Romand Sinte Swiss German. Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese.

Central , Sardinian and Eastern. Italics indicate extinct languages Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.

French language and French-speaking world portal Language portal. Retrieved from " https: Articles with French-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 30 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Francophonie French-speaking world geographical distribution below.

French people and Francophones. Latin French alphabet French Braille. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.

Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help: Part of a series on the.

Adverbs Articles and determiners Pronouns personal Verbs conjugation morphology. Alphabet Reforms Circumflex Braille. Elision Liaison Aspirated h Help: For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: For a list of words relating to French language, see the French language category of words in Wiktionary , the free dictionary.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.

In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.

The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.

The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.

There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.

French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.

Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.

Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.

France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. S and Israel, voted against it.

Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.

In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.

French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.

French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.

The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.

The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France. In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker.

The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories.

Great Seal of France. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi. Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul. Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty.

List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages. Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty. France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century.

France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France.

Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people. Largest cities or towns in France census.

Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. France portal French language and French-speaking world portal.

The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.

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Author: Mekus

5 thoughts on “Frenche

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